Water and energy are fundamental for life on Earth. Fresh water is a major pressure point for society owing to increasing demand and vagaries of climate. Extremes of droughts, heat waves and wild fires, as well as floods, heavy rains, and intense storms increasingly threaten to cause havoc as the climate changes. Other challenges exist on how clouds and aerosols affect energy and climate. Better observations and analysis of these phenomena, and improving our ability to model and predict them, will contribute to increasing information needed by society and decision makers for future planning.
To measure and predict global and regional energy and water variations, trends, and extremes, such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, through improved observations and modeling of land, atmosphere, and their interaction, thereby providing the scientific underpinnings of climate services.